The right to life is generally recognized as a very important right in any legal system. This right is absolute in some jurisdictions; however, limitations are placed on this right in some other jurisdictions to which Nigeria is included. One of the limitations placed on the right to life in Nigeria is the death penalty. These two concepts are closely related because they involve the state’s responsibility in balancing the right to life of an individual and protecting the lives of the public by imposing the death penalty. Arguments made for and against the retention of the death penalty have gained global recognition and are still relevant in this modern age. Other contemporary issues in relation to these concepts are euthanasia, and extrajudicial killings. This paper is an appraisal of the right to life and death penalty in Nigeria.